Collected on this page are various resources that can assist you in writing papers, using citation formats and managing your citations.

Purdue OWL (Purdue Online Writing Lab)

Links to over 200 online writing resources and instructional material resources put together by the English Department at Purdue University to support student's and faculty writing and teaching of writing efforts

Washington College Writing Center

“Writing Resources” from the Washington College Writing Center

Links to resources available on the Web. Includes “Practical Advice,” “Grammar and Mechanics,” “Documentation and Research,” and a source for classic reference texts

University of Richmond Writers Web

Writing advice by discipline, stages in writing process, and numerous other topics.


APA style asssistance from the American Psychological Association

APA Reference Style Guide

From Northern Michigan University - Examples reflect the 6th edition, 2nd printing (© 2010) of the Publication ManualAPA Style Guide to Electronic References, 6th ed. (© 2012); and APA Style

Purdue OWL (Purdue Online Writing Lab)

Direct link to Purdue OWL APA format section

Sample AMA References

From the NIH, examples of how to create references like PubMed

International Committee of Medical Journal Editors

Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly work in Medical Journals.

Citing Medicine

Citing Medicine provides assistance to authors in compiling lists of references for their publications, to editors in revising such lists, to publishers in setting reference standards for their authors and editors, and to librarians and others in formatting bibliographic citations.

Citation Assistance Sites

Landmark's Son of Citation Machine

Citation Machine is an interactive web tool designed to assist high school, college, and university students, properly cite intellectual content pulled from other sources.


An interactive web tool to assist students format paper citations to properly cite intellectual content pulled from other sources.


BibMe is a free automatic citation creator that supports MLA, APA, Chicago, and Turabian formatting. BibMe leverages external databases to quickly fill citation information for you. BibMe will then format the citation information and compile a bibliography according to the guidelines of the style manuals. If you prefer, you can enter your citation information manually. BibMe also features a citation guide that provides students with the style manuals' guidelines for citing references.


Attribution Builders help faculty to easily determine and add the appropriate Creative Commons license to Open Educational Materials. The Creative Commons license defines how the material can be used, and is required for the material to be considered OER. Use of another's work requires attribution.

Open Attribution Builder

This is a tool to help you build attributions. Click the About box to learn more. As you fill out the form, the app automatically generates the attribution for you.

Creative Commons Attribution

A Creative Commons license is one of several public copyright licenses that enable the free distribution of an otherwise copyrighted "work". A CC license is used when an author wants to give other people the right to share, use, and build upon a work that they have created.


Why Citations Matter

Citing Medicine, 2nd edition
The National Library of Medicine Style Guide for Authors, Editors and Publishers.
Why do you need to cite the sources you use for your papers?*
Your professors expect you to read about the research of others, and to bring together their ideas in such a way that makes sense to you and will make sense to your readers. Therefore, it's essential for you to cite your sources in any research paper you write. The academic reasons for doing so are to give credit to those who have done the original research and written the article or book, and to allow readers (your professors) to look at them if needed to find out if you have properly understood what the author was trying to say.

On a practical level, citing your sources is a way to show that you've done the assignment. If your paper contains no citations, the implication is that you have done a piece of original research, but that probably was not the assignment. Citations (along with the bibliography) show that you have consulted a variety of resources as the assignment required. They're also an acknowledgement of your indebtedness to those authors.

So you don't feel you need to hide the fact that you're drawing from one of your sources. That's what it's all about.
  *Adapted from: Taylor, Bill. "A letter to my students." Academic Integrity Seminar.29 Feb. 2008
What are We Talking About?
  • A citation reflects all of the information a person would need to locate a particular source. For example, basic citation information for a book consists of name(s) of author(s) or editor(s), title of book, name of publisher, place of publication, and most recent copyright date.
  • A citation style dictates the information necessary for a citation and how the information is ordered, as well as punctuation and other formatting.
  • A bibliography lists citations for all of the relevant resources a person consulted during his or her research.
  • In an annotated bibliography, each citation is followed by a brief note or annotation that describes and/or evaluates the source and the information found in it.
  • A works cited list presents citations for those sources referenced in a particular paper, presentation, or other composition.
  • An in-text citation consists of just enough information to correspond to a source's full citation in a Works Cited list. In-text citations often require a page number (or numbers) showing exactly where relevant information was found in the original source.


Several versions of reference management software are listed below. Some have free basic versions, some require payment to use, and some are completely free.


EndNote is a reference management software that allows you to search databases for citations, import citations, store and organize your citations, create bibliographies and share with up to 14 others (all users must pay for the software).  There is a free, basic version of EndNote available that has limited storage and does not allow sharing files with colleagues.


Refworks is a reference management software that is designed to help researchers gather, manage, store and share all types of information, as well as generate citations and bibliographies.   All users must pay for access to the software.  There does not appear to be a free version of this software.


A largely free reference management software that allows notations in PDF files.  Captures, stores, imports, exports and organizes citations. One free collaborating group of 3 allowed, more with paid subscription.


A completely free, (up to 300 MB) open-source reference management software developed and owned by George Mason University.  Collects, organizes, cites and shares research sources.  Allows unlimited collaboration.

Further Information on Citation Management Software

Wikipedia has a nice table comparing numerous citation/reference manager software programs