APA Style Guides

  • APA- APA style asssistance from the American Psychological Association.
  • APA Reference Style Guide- from Northern Michigan University - Examples reflect the 6th edition, 2nd printing (© 2010) of the Publication ManualAPA Style Guide to Electronic References, 6th ed. (© 2012); and APA Style.
  • Purdue OWL (Purdue Online Writing Lab)- Direct link to Purdue OWL APA format section.

 

AMA Style Guides

  • Sample AMA References- from the NIH, examples of how to create references like PubMed.
  • International Committee of Medical Journal Editors- Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly work in Medical Journals.
  • Citing Medicine- Citing Medicine provides assistance to authors in compiling lists of references for their publications, to editors in revising such lists, to publishers in setting reference standards for their authors and editors, and to librarians and others in formatting bibliographic citations.

Writing Resources

  • Purdue OWL (Purdue Online Writing Lab)- links to over 200 online writing resources and instructional material resources put together by the English Department at Purdue University to support student's and faculty writing and teaching of writing efforts.
  • Washington College Writing Center- links to resources available on the Web. Includes “Practical Advice,” “Grammar and Mechanics,” “Documentation and Research,” and a source for classic reference texts.
  • University of Richmond Writers Web - Writing advice by discipline, stages in writing process, and numerous other topics.
About Citations

A citation reflects all of the information a person would need to locate a particular source. For example, basic citation information for a book consists of name(s) of author(s) or editor(s), title of book, name of publisher, place of publication, and most recent copyright date.

A citation style dictates the information necessary for a citation and how the information is ordered, as well as punctuation and other formatting.

A bibliography lists citations for all of the relevant resources a person consulted during his or her research. In an annotated bibliography, each citation is followed by a brief note or annotation that describes and/or evaluates the source and the information found in it. A works cited list presents citations for those sources referenced in a particular paper, presentation, or other composition.

An in-text citation consists of just enough information to correspond to a source's full citation in a Works Cited list. In-text citations often require a page number (or numbers) showing exactly where relevant information was found in the original source.

 
 
Why and When Citations Matter

When referencing information from another's work be sure to provide appropriate credit by citing the source to avoid plagiarism. Your professors expect you to read about the research of others, and to bring together their ideas in such a way that makes sense to you and will make sense to your readers. However, it's essential for you to cite your sources whenever you are using other peoples ideas or work in any research paper you write. Also, there are serious academic consequences for plagiarism at SCNM (e.g. receiving a failing grade on an assignment or course and/or dismissal from the program). 

 
Why cite
  • To give credit to those who have done the original research, written the article or book, and to allow readers (and your professors) to look at them if needed to find out if you have properly understood what the author was trying to say.
  • To demonstrate that you have done your research and/or show that you've done the assignment.
    • If your paper contains no citations, the impression is that you have done a piece of original research. If you used pieces of others ideas in your paper it should contain citations. Citations (along with the bibliography) show that you have consulted a variety of resources and from what resources you are borrowing work. They are also an acknowledgement of your indebtedness to those authors.
  • To support your arguments.
  • It is okay to draw from others work, as long as you give credit where credit is due! 

When to cite

  • If you borrow an idea, opinion or finding
  • Examples:
    • Direct quotes
    • Paraphrasing or summarizing
    • Statistical data
    • Images
    • Other work
  • When in doubt, cite it!

 

Citation Resources

  • Landmark's Son of Citation Machine - an interactive web tool designed to assist high school, college, and university students, properly cite intellectual content pulled from other sources.
  • KnightCite - an interactive web tool to assist students format paper citations to properly cite intellectual content pulled from other sources.
  • BibMe - a free automatic citation creator that supports MLA, APA, Chicago, and Turabian formatting. BibMe leverages external databases to quickly fill citation information for you. BibMe will then format the citation information and compile a bibliography according to the guidelines of the style manuals. If you prefer, you can enter your citation information manually. BibMe also features a citation guide that provides students with the style manuals' guidelines for citing references.

 

Attribution Builders help faculty easily determine and add the appropriate Creative Commons license to Open Educational Materials (OER). The Creative Commons license defines how the material can be used, and is required for the material to be considered OER. Use of another's work requires attribution.

  • Open Attribution BuilderThis is a tool to help you build attributions. Click the About box to learn more. As you fill out the form, the app automatically generates the attribution for you.
  • Creative Commons AttributionA Creative Commons license is one of several public copyright licenses that enable the free distribution of an otherwise copyrighted "work". A CC license is used when an author wants to give other people the right to share, use, and build upon a work that they have created.

Several versions of reference management software are listed below. Some have free basic versions, some require payment to use, and some are completely free.

  • EndNote- EndNote is a reference management software that allows you to search databases for citations, import citations, store and organize your citations, create bibliographies and share with up to 14 others (all users must pay for the software).  There is a free, basic version of EndNote available that has limited storage and does not allow sharing files with colleagues.
  • RefWorks - a reference management software that is designed to help researchers gather, manage, store and share all types of information, as well as generate citations and bibliographies.   All users must pay for access to the software.  There does not appear to be a free version of this software.
  • Mendeley - a largely free reference management software that allows notations in PDF files.  Captures, stores, imports, exports and organizes citations. One free collaborating group of 3 allowed, more with paid subscription.
  • Zotero - a completely free, (up to 300 MB) open-source reference management software developed and owned by George Mason University.  Collects, organizes, cites and shares research sources.  Allows unlimited collaboration.
  • Further Information on Citation Management Software - Wikipedia has a nice table comparing numerous citation/reference manager software programs

Definition

Plagiarism includes but is not limited to the following: presenting someone else's ideas as yours, copying verbatim all or part of another's written work; using phrases, charts, figures, illustrations, or mathematical or scientific solutions without citing the source; paraphrasing ideas, conclusions or research without citing the source in the text and in reference lists; inaccurate citations; using your own previously completed work and not citing yourself

Source: University of Oxford (2019). Plagiarism. Retrieved from https://www.ox.ac.uk/students/academic/guidance/skills/plagiarism?wssl=1

Plagiarism is just one of many topics included under integrity and academic honesty outlined in the Student Handbook, which defines plagiarism as:

“Plagiarism occurs when one reproduces another’s words, ideas, or work without proper acknowledgement; when one paraphrases another’s ideas or arguments in a way that leads the reader to believe they originated with the paraphraser; or when someone signs the name of another individual on an academic/administrative report or document.”

 

Self-Plagiarism

Self-plagiarism can be described as a student submitting work that is the same or significantly the same as work that student previously submitted without approval from the course faculty. If a student would like to build upon a previous paper, project, or idea that they previously submitted they must secure prior approval from the course faculty before beginning the work.  Students must also cite themselves if they do use their previous work. use of one's own If using previous work in another context students must also themselves (referencing that the work was used previously).

 

Citing Sources

When using portions of someone else’s work you must give credit to the creator of that work. This includes, but is not limited to, using findings or ideas from hard copy or electronic publications, whether copyrighted or not, verbal or visual communication. (See the Citations section to the left for more information).